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Indications for nitrofurantoin
Nitrofurantoin is active against common uropathogenic germs, such as
- Escherichia coli
- Staphylococcus saprophyticus
- Enterococcus faecalis
Other species of enterococci, including vancomycin-resistant strains, and Klebsiella and Enterobacter spp are often less sensitive, but nitrofurantoin may still be effective in the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis caused by these pathogens. Most strains of Proteus, Providencia, Morganella, Serratia, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas spp are resistant. No cross-resistance is observed with other classes of antibiotics.
Nitrofurantoin is only used in
- The treatment or prevention of an uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection (cystitis)
- In women with recurrent urinary tract infections, it can reduce the number of episodes.
Contraindications of nitrofurantoin
Contraindications to nitrofurantoin include
- A history of allergic reaction to this product
- Renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance < 60 L/min)
- Age < 1 month
- Full-term pregnancy (38 to 42 weeks of pregnancy), during labor and delivery or when the onset of labor is imminent.
- Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Use during pregnancy and lactation
Animal reproduction studies carried out with nitrofurantoin have not shown any risk to the fetus. No adequate and well-controlled studies have been carried out in pregnant women, but nitrofurantoin is generally considered safe during the 3 trimesters of pregnancy. However, nitrofurantoin is contraindicated at the end of pregnancy and during labor or childbirth because it disrupts the enzymatic systems of the red blood cells of newborns, damages the cells and can lead to hemolytic anemia.
Nitrofurantoin penetrates into breast milk and should be avoided if possible during the first month of breastfeeding in order to reduce the risk of hemolytic anemia, especially in hyperbilirubinemic infants.
Side effects of nitrofurantoin
Side effects of nitrofurantoins include
- Gastrointestinal disorders
- Pulmonary toxicity
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Hemolytic anemia
- Liver toxicity
Frequent adverse reactions are nausea and vomiting, which are less common with the microcrystalline form. Fever, skin rashes, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (accompanied by fever and eosinophilia), as well as chronic progressive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis can also be observed. Paresthesias may occur and be followed by severe ascending sensitivomotor polyneuritis if the drug is not discontinued, especially in cases of renal insufficiency.
Leukopenia and liver toxicity (acute or chronic active cholestatic hepatitis) have been reported, and hemolytic anemia may occur in cases of G6PD deficiency and in infants < 1 month of age.
Chronic pulmonary and hepatic reactions occur when the drug is used for > 6 months.
Macrobid - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions
Macrobid is available in a package of 14 capsules of 100mg. The capsules can be taken whole with a drink during or just after meals. The recommended dose for adults and children over 12 years of age would be 100mg twice a day. It should be taken with food or milk to reduce stomach upset. Note that several factors would have to be taken into account to determine the dose that a person needs. These factors are, for example, his weight, his state of health and the intake of other medications. Also, if your doctor has recommended another dose, do not change the way you take the medicine without consulting him first. Also, it is important that the intake of Nitrofurantoin is in accordance with the indications of your doctor.
The dosage of your treatment is based on your condition. Also, before taking Nitrofurantoin, inform your doctor about medications, dietary supplements, allergies, pre-existing diseases and your current health conditions (pregnancy, upcoming surgery, etc.). This information is useful for your prescription because certain health conditions may make you more sensitive to the side effects of the drug. Thus, your doctor can help you prevent or manage drug interactions. Notice that Macrobid interacts with Amphotericin B - ascorbic acid – fosphenytoin – Gestodene - Magnesium oxides and hydroxides and nalidixic acid. To follow up on your treatment, tell your doctor if your condition persists or deteriorates.
Also, finish the prescription even if you start to feel better. If you stop treatment before term, the infection may recur. And if you miss a dose, take the medicine as soon as you notice the omission and resume further treatment as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, drop the missed dose and resume the usual dosing schedule. Attention, no double dose to compensate for the omission of a dose. Taking more medications than necessary will not improve your symptoms, they can cause poisoning or serious side effects.
Possible side effects have been noted from the ingredients of Macrobid Capsule. The list is not exhaustive and these side effects are possible, but do not always occur. Some may be rare, but serious. Consult your doctor if any of the following side effects do not want to go away. These are hair loss; confusion; muscle or joint pain; changes in eyesight; mood swings, abnormal thoughts or macrobidanormal behavior ; symptoms of liver damage (yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, abdominal pain, discolored stools, dark urine, itching, nausea or fatigue); symptoms of nerve damage (tingling, burning sensation, pain or heaviness in the arms and legs or difficulty controlling the muscles of the arms or legs); symptoms of a low white blood cell count (fever and chills or frequent infections) ; symptoms of a low number of red blood cells (fatigue, weakness, decreased energy or pallor of the skin).
In addition, at least 1% of people taking Nitrofurantoin have reported gas; headache; nausea.
BE CAREFUL, stop taking the medicine and seek medical attention immediately if it occurs:
- symptoms of a serious skin reaction (e.g. combined with a significant production of blisters leading to a fall of the skin in the form of small strips or even flaps, fever or bloodshot eyes) ;
- signs of a serious allergic reaction (e.g. swelling of the face or throat, hives or difficulty breathing) ;
- Symptoms of a pulmonary reaction to the medication (such as fever, chills, cough, chest pain or difficulty breathing). Contraindications
As a precaution during treatment with Macrobid. It is advisable not to drive or use heavy machinery – not to consume Nitrofurantoin with antacids containing magnesium – not to consume Nitrofurantoin during pregnancy and lactation – to take the tablets after meals or milk for easy absorption.
It should also be noted that hypersensitivity to Macrobid Capsule is a contraindication. Likewise, cheap Macrobid Capsule is not recommended if you are pregnant or a newborn; if you have decreased kidney function; or if you have oliguria or anuria, that is to say an absence of urine in the bladder, more precisely an emission of urine less than 200 cubic centimeters per day.
In addition, Macrobid should be stored at room temperature, protected from heat and direct light. Keep it out of the reach of children and pets. In addition, do not flush medicines down the toilet or pour them into the drainage. Discarded medicines could contaminate the environment.